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WHAT IS JUDO: History, Rules, and Principles of judo

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Judo is a Japanese martial art that literally translates as “flexible path” or”soft path”. The creation of judo falls in the XIX century. This is the merit of the master of martial arts Jigoro Kano, who formed a set of basic rules, techniques for training and competitions. Combat sports do not involve the use of weapons. There are combat techniques involved, you can use throws and chokeholds. The wrestlers who have set foot on the “flexible path” are called judoists. Athletes are engaged in wrestling in special clothing: trousers and a quilted elongated jacket with a kimono belt, and the ring is represented by specialized mats — tatami.

what is judo?

Judo (YAP. 柔道, literally – “soft way”) is an Olympic sport in which throws, painful and suffocating techniques are allowed. Painful receptions are allowed only on the hands of the opponent. Blows and some of the most traumatic techniques are studied only in the form of a map. In judo, dexterity is very important, as well as the use of the opponent’s strength in principle.

History of the origin and development of judo

history of judo

according to the classification accepted in Japan, judo refers to modern martial arts. Judo wrestling was created by Professor Jigoro Kano. In 1882, Kano opened the first Kodokan judo school in Tokyo. A year later, he created a system of categories, and in 1887, the judo technique was finally formed. The first world championship was held in Tokyo in 1956, after which competitions of this scale began to be held regularly and not only in Japan.

For many years, there were no weight categories in judo. As the Japanese themselves believed, the main thing is not strength, but the art of using secret techniques. But after the defeat of the Japanese at the fourth world championship, the rules were changed and weight categories appeared. Since 1964, judo has been included in the program of the Olympic games. In 1980, the first women’s world championship was held, and in 1992, the women’s judo competition was included in the official program of the summer Olympic games in Barcelona. Since 2005, the European Judo Union has started to hold kata competitions. In 2008, the international judo Federation held the first kata world championship in Paris.

Rules of judo

judoka

In addition to weight categories, there are certain age groups in judo:

  • Younger age-boys and girls up to 12 years.
  • The average age is boys and girls up to 14 years old.
  • Cadets – boys and girls up to 17 years old.
  • Juniors and juniors-up to 20 years old.
  • Youth – up to 23 years old. Men and women.
  • Veterans-after 30 years.

in judo, it begins in the standing position and at the command “HAJIME”. If you need to stop the match, then the “MATE” team is announced.

The end of the match is signaled by the SORO-MADE team. To win the match, the attacking wrestler in the stand must perform a throw of the opponent on his back, and in the prone position-a painful or suffocating reception, or a hold (30 seconds).

Grades in judo


There are 4 levels of ratings during the battle:

  • “IPPON” – the highest rating in judo, after the announcement of which the competition is terminated since it means an absolute victory. IPPON can be awarded in situations where:

  • the attacker, after a powerful and fast reception, puts the sparring partner on the shoulder blades or most of the back and completely controls it;

  • the attacker holds the hold and locks the sparring partner for at least 25 seconds;

  • the sparring partner announces that he is giving up.

  • “Waza-Ari” means incomplete victory or half-victory. “Waza-Ari” in judo can be declared in situations where:

  • the attacker quickly puts the sparring partner on the shoulder blades, but there are no certain components necessary for the award of ” IPPON»;

  • the attacker fixes the partner and holds it for 20-25 seconds.

  • “SKO” is awarded in cases where:

  • the attacker throws the sparring partner to the side and controls the situation, not allowing the latter to Dodge;

  • the attacker fixes the opponent for 15-20 seconds.

  • Coca announces:

  • when throwing a sparring partner on the shoulder or hip;

  • when fixing the opponent and holding it for 10 to 15 seconds.


Since “Waza-Ari” implies a half-victory, therefore, 2 ” Waza-Ari “in judo are equated to”IPPON”. If in the course of single combat the judge awarded the judoka “Waza-Ari” twice, it will mean a complete victory, and the fight is stopped.

In addition to these ratings, there is a system of rewards for complexity, especially for successfully conducted deceptive maneuvers that force the partner to react. These include deceptive techniques:

  • from your seat;
  • before throwing.
  • in motion.


The first and second maneuvers, performed in a technically clean performance, bring the judoka 1 additional point, the third-3.

Tatami

tatami

Fights in judo are held on a tatami Mat, which consists of separate mats measuring 1m x 1m x 4cm or 2m x 1m x 4cm made of polymer materials. The tatami consists of two zones of different colors.

In the center of the tatami is a square with a minimum size of 8m by 8m and a maximum size of 10m by 10m, which is called the work area and consists of mats of the same color. The outer part of the tatami is called the security zone and consists of mats of a different color and has a perimeter size of 3M. In the Central part of the working area, at a distance of 4 meters from each other, white and blue stripes are applied on the mats, about 10 cm wide and about 50 cm long, which serve to mark the places of participants before the start of the match and after it ends.

Judo equipment

The form for practicing judo is called-judoka and consists of three parts: a jacket, trousers, and a belt. Usually, a judoka is made of cotton and must be blue in the athlete called by the first and white in the second athlete.

The jacket should be wide enough to cover the left side with the right side at least 20 cm at the level of the lower chest. The sleeves of the jacket must be at most up to the wrist and at least up to a point located 5 cm above the wrist.

Along the entire length of the sleeve, there should be a space of 10-15 cm between the sleeve and the jacket. Trousers should be long enough to cover the legs as far as possible up to the ankle joint or at least to a point located 5 cm above it. Between the leg and the trousers, there should be a space of 10-15 cm along the entire length of the pant leg. A 4-5 cm wide belt should be wrapped twice over the jacket and tied at waist level with a flat knot. The length of the belt should be such that the ends are 20-30 cm long. If the participant’s costume does not meet the requirements of the Rules, the judge on control or the arbitrator may require the participant to change the costume.

The refereeing

The refereeing of the match is performed by a team of judges:

  • the Referee. The duties of the referee include directing the match, as well as expressing their attitude to the actions of athletes. The arbitrator makes a General decision of the judging team.
  • Touch judge. The side judge must Express his opinion if it differs from the decision of the arbiter when announcing the scores of technical actions or punishments using appropriate official gestures.
  • Side judges are located in opposite corners outside the work area.

Judo competitions

  • Judo competitions of the Olympic games.
  • World championship.
  • Masters. «Grand slam».
  • «grand prix».
  • Continental championship.
  • Continental Open.

Principles Of judo:

  • Mutual assistance and understanding for better progress.
  • Optimal use of the spirit and body.
  • Give in to win.

Judo athletes have their own code of honor.A fighter should be polite, honest, modest, loyal to a friend, brave, have self-control, and respect others.One who joins the ranks of the participants in this struggle takes an oath:

  • I will not disgrace judo and my school.
  • I won’t leave school without a good reason.
  • Without the permission of the teacher, I will not reveal to anyone the secrets I have learned here.
  • I will follow the laws of my school as long as I am a student, and I will adhere to them if I become a teacher.

Mutual assistance and understanding for better progress

Help and understanding for better progress this judo principle reveals the spiritual and moral side of martial art.

Flexibility, good manners, good behavior are a wealth for society. Master Kano noted the Basic Rules for an athlete in everyday life:

  • to have the initiative in any business.
  • Know when you stop.
  • Concentrate on the circumstances of life and yourself, the environment, and others.
  • Act decisively, fully understand.
  • Maintain a balance between joy and depression, carelessness, cowardice and exhaustion and laziness.

Best use of body and spirit

The best use of the body and spirit With the least effort to get the maximum result. The second principle of judo is the foundation on which the fight in this martial art is built. This rule is suitable for developing not only physical strength, improving skills. But also for mental activity and even character education. To sum up, it is safe to say that the principle of the best use of the body and spirit can become the rule of life.

Conclusion: what is better, judo or freestyle wrestling

judo is attractive by having a large number of permitted techniques and actions, and physical effort is used less. In contrast to other types of wrestling, such as freestyle and Greco-Roman. However, they all develop endurance, strength, dexterity, and temper the spirit. The sport that is closer to the spiritual state of the individual according to its philosophy, technique, and rules will be more attractive. This means that the choice of martial art is up to you.


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